7 Causes of Tornadoes

Moist, warm air: Warm, humid air near the Earth's surface is essential for creating the fuel that powers thunderstorms, the parent of most tornadoes. This warm air is less dense than cooler air and tends to rise rapidly. 

Unstable air: Unstable air is air that readily rises when given a slight nudge. This instability is often caused by the presence of warm air at the surface and cooler air above. 

Lifting mechanism: A lifting mechanism, such as a cold front or warm front, is needed to initiate the rising air. Cold fronts, where cooler air pushes under warmer air, can provide a strong lifting force. 

Wind shear: Wind shear is the change in wind speed and/or direction with height. Strong wind shear can cause the rising air column to rotate horizontally. This horizontal rotation is stretched and intensified as the air rises, eventually leading to a vertically oriented vortex. 

Low-level rotation: Low-level rotation in the atmosphere, often associated with converging winds near the surface, can further enhance the rotation of the rising air column.

Supercell thunderstorms: While not all thunderstorms produce tornadoes, the most favorable environment for tornado formation occurs within supercell thunderstorms. 

Geography: Certain geographical features, such as mountains and valleys, can influence the formation of tornadoes by channeling winds and creating areas of convergence or divergence that can affect the lifting and shearing of air.